Isaac Scientific Publishing

Theoretical Physics

Source and Sink Theory

Download PDF (420.3 KB) PP. 1 - 9 Pub. Date: March 8, 2020

DOI: 10.22606/tp.2020.51001


  • Mohsen Sharifpur*
    Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa


The lack of information from the very early Universe and offering a new theory to answer the unanswered questions has long been a topic of great interest. One of the most important questions is about the origin of the Dark Energy which causes the acceleration of the galaxies as well as the expansion of the Universe. Inflation theory tried to sort out of problems with Big Bang cosmology, but couldn’t, and that’s why there are different versions of inflation theory. Therefore, the lack of a new and general theory to answer the unanswered questions is obvious. If Big Bang is a part of nature, the knowledge of different patterns in nature like fractional geometries and Fibonacci, fluid dynamics, constructal law needs to be considered for the new theory. In nature, everything behaves as a pattern of a flow (which is approved by constructal law), as well as, whatever we have in nature has a pair (like male and female), or opposite (like opposite charges of electron and positron), or poles (like a magnetic field), … In this way, by using the similarity of the cases and elaborately investigate into nature, it is possible to propose a new theory to answer the unanswered questions. The “Source and Sink Theory", simply indicates that "if there is a source, it must be at least one sink (at the same instance), with a flow pattern from source to the sink, and the process must be conserved". By applying this general theory to our Universe, it could indicate that the so-called Big Bang could be a pulse of a point source and at the same instance, it should be at least an opposite of the Big Bang as a sink. Consequently, the energy which introduced from our Universe origin (Big Bang) as a pulse of a point source with a unique cosmic microwave background radiation flows toward a sink (or sinks). A sink has gravity (curvature of space-time) which could produce a flow pattern for the energy released from source to the sink. The cosmic microwave background radiation could also support this theory as much as it supported the Hot Big Bang model. In the special case (set the gravity of the sink to zero, and no space between source and sink), application of this theory for cosmology will switch back to Big Bang cosmology, which shows more ability of this theory to produce different scenarios to fit the available data. Application of this general multi-discipline theory on our Universe can also offer an answer to some of the unanswered questions like the origin of Dark Energy, galaxies acceleration, so-called expansion of the Universe and much more...


Big Bang, inflation, constructal law, Dark Energy, fractional geometry, cosmic microwave background radiation.


[1] J. V. Narlikar and N.C. Rana, Hawking process and the cosmic microwave background in a steady-state universe, Physics Letters A, Vol. 72( 2), 1979, pp. 75-77.

[2] Anna Ijjas and Paul J. Steinhardt, A new kind of cyclic universe, Physics Letters B, Vol. 795, 2019, pp. 666–672.

[3] Robert A. Malaney and Grant J.Mathew, Probing the early universe: a review of primordial nucleosynthesis beyond the standard big bang, Physics Reports, Vol. 229 (4), 1993, pp.145-219.

[4] Gasperini M., Veneziano G., The pre-big bang scenario in string cosmology, Physics Reports, Vol. 373, 2003, pp. 1–212.

[5] Ade P. A. R., Aghanim N., Arnaud M., Arroja F., Ashdown M. …, Planck Collaboration, Astronomy and Astrophysics, A 594, 2016, A20

[6] Nojiri S., Odintsov S.D., Oikonomou V.K., Modified gravity theories on a nutshell: Inflation, bounce and latetime evolution, Physics Reports 692, 2017, pp. 1–104.

[7] Kundu P.K., Cohen I.M., Fluid Mechanics, Academic Press, (2002) by Elsevier Science (USA). Anthony Aguirre and Steven Gratton, Inflation without a beginning: A null boundary proposal. Phys. Rev. D, Vol. 67, 2013 2003083515 – Published 29 April 10.1103/PhysRevD.67.083515, Also at:

[8] Diana Battefeld and Patrick Peter, A critical review of classical bouncing cosmologies, Physics Reports, Vol. 571, 2015, pp. 1–66.

[9] Bahamonde Sebastian, Böhmer Christian G., Carloni Sante, Copeland Edmund J., Fang Wei, Tamanini Nicola, Dynamical systems applied to cosmology: Dark energy and modified gravity, Physics Reports, Vol. 775–777, 2018, pp. 1–122.

[10] de Castro L.N., Fundamentals of natural computing: an overview, Physics of Life Reviews, Vol. 4, 2007, pp. 1– 36.

[11] Meakin Paul, Fractal structures, Prog. Solid St. Chem., Vol. 20, 1990, pp. 135--233.

[12] Guariglia Emanuel, Harmonic Sierpinski Gasket and Applications, Entropy, Vol. 20, 2018, p. 714.

[13] Adrian Bejan and J. Peder Zane, Design in Nature: How the Constructal Law Governs Evolution in Biology, Physics, Technology, and Social Organizations, Anchor publisher, USA, 2012.

[14] Alexey Stakhov and Boris Rozin, The “golden” hyperbolic models of Universe, Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Vol. 34, 2007, pp. 159-171.

[15] Jan C.A. Boeyens, Number patterns in Nature, Crystal Engineering, Vol. 6, 2003, pp. 167-185.

[16] Lucia Umberto, Exergy flows as bases of constructal law, Physica A, Vol. 392, 2013, pp. 6284–6287.

[17] Cengel Y., Cimbala J.M., Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, McGraw-Hill Education, New York (2016)

[18] Cengel, Yunus A., Ghajar, Afshin J., Heat and Mass Transfer: Fundamentals & Applications, McGraw-Hill USA, fifth edition, 2015.

[19] Pereira Thiago, Pitrou Cyril, Isotropization of the universe during inflation, Comptes Rendus Physique, Vol. 16, 2015, pp. 1027–1037.

[20] McCoy C.D., Does inflation solve the hot big bang model’s fine-tuning problems?, Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, Vol. 51, 2015, pp. 23–36.

[21] Gawiser Eric, Silk Joseph, "The cosmic microwave background radiation”, Physics Reports Vol. 333-334, 2000, pp. 245-267.

[22] Cirkovi Milan, Perovi Slobodan, “Alternative explanations of the cosmic microwave background: A historical and an epistemological perspective”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, Vol. 62, 2018, pp. 1- 18

[23] Keskina A.I., Saltib M., Cosmographic nature of the early universe from extra dimensional perspective, Physics Letters B, Vol. 791, 2019, pp. 80–85.

[24] Arkani-Hamed Nima, Dimopoulos Savas, Dvali Gia, Large new dimensions and quantum gravity around the corner, Comptes Rendus Physique, Vol. 4, 2003, pp. 347–354.

[25] Shapiro Joel A., Taylor Cyrus C., The spacetime supersymmetric formulation of the string, Physics Reports, Vol. 191, Issue 4, 1990, pp. 221-287.

[26] Hoyle B., Measuring photometric redshifts using galaxy images and Deep Neural Networks, Astronomy and Computing, Vol. 16, 2016, pp. 34-40.

[27] Kundu P.K., Cohen I.M., Fluid Mechanics, Academic Press, (2002) by Elsevier Science (USA).