# Theoretical Physics

### Hundred Years of Einstein's Cosmological Constant

Download PDF (379.4 KB) PP. 43 - 50 Pub. Date: June 8, 2018

### Author(s)

**Kenath Arun**

Department of Physics and Electronics, Christ University, Bengaluru, India; Department of Physics, Christ Junior College, Bengaluru, India**B Gudennavar**

Department of Physics and Electronics, Christ University, Bengaluru, India**Kiren O V**

Department of Physics, St. Josephs Indian Composite PU College, Bengaluru, India**C Sivaram**

Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bengaluru, India

### Abstract

### Keywords

### References

[1] P. Kerszberg, The Invented Universe: The Einstein-De Sitter Controversy (1916-17) and the Rise of Relativistic Cosmology. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1989.

[2] A. Einstein, “Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity (English translation).” Sitz. K?nig. Preuss. Akad., part 1, p. 142, http://einsteinpapers.press.princeton.edu/vol6-trans/433, 1917.

[3] A. Einstein, The Meaning of Relativity. Routledge, London, 2003.

[4] A. Einstein, “The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity (English translation).” Annalen der Physik, vol. 49, p. 769, http://einsteinpapers.press.princeton.edu/vol6-trans/158, 1916.

[5] C. Sivaram, K. Arun and O. V. Kiren, 100 years of Einstein's Theory of Relativity: An Introduction to Gravity and Cosmology. Ane Books, New Delhi, 2016.

[6] A. Einstein, (1905) Annalen der Physik 322, 891; M. Saha, The Principle of Relativity: Original Papers by A. Einstein and H. Minkowski (English translation), University of Calcutta, pp. 1-34, 1920.

[7] J. Wheeler and K. Ford, Geons, Black Holes, and Quantum Foam. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 2000.

[8] E. Hubble, “A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., vol. 15, pp. 168-173, 1929.

[9] A. S. Eddington, “On the Instability of Einstein's Spherical World.” Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., vol. 90, pp. 668-678, 1930.

[10] G. Lema?tre, “Expansion of the universe, A homogeneous universe of constant mass and increasing radius accounting for the radial velocity of extra-galactic nebulae.” Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., vol. 91, pp. 483-490, 1931.

[11] H. von Seeliger, “On Newton's law of gravitation.” Pop. Astron., vol. 5, pp. 544-551, 1898.

[12] C. Neumann, Allgemeine Untersuchung über das Newtonsche Prinzip der Fernwirkungen.

[13] C. O'Raifeartaigh, M. O'Keeffe, W. Nahm and S. Mitton, “Einstein's 1917 Static Model of the Universe: A Centennial Review.” The European Physical Journal H, vol. 42, pp. 431-474, 2017.

[14] C. Sivaram, “Mond, dark matter and the cosmological constant.” Astrophys. Space Sci., vol. 219, pp. 135-141, 1994.

[15] C. Sivaram, “A non-anthropic origin for a small cosmological constant.” Bull. Astron. Soc. India, vol. 27, pp. 377-382, 1999.

[16] C. Sivaram, “On Zero-Point Fluctuations, the Cosmological Constant, and the Graviton Mass.” Astrophys. J., vol. 520, pp. 454-455, 1999.

[17] C. Sivaram, “A non-anthropic origin for a small cosmological constant.” Mod. Phys. Lett. A, vol. 14, pp. 2363- 2366, 1999.

[18] A. Pais, Subtle is the Lord: The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1982.

[19] S. W. Hawking, “The cosmological constant.” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A, vol .310, pp. 303-310, 1983.

[20] J. Weber, Gravitational antenna bandwidths and cross sections. In: Schutz, B.F., Ed., Gravitational Wave Data Analysis, NATO ASI C253, Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 195-200, 1989.

[21] A. S. Eddington, The Mathematical Theory of Relativity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1923.

[22] H. C. Ohanian, Einstein's Mistakes: The Human Failings of Genius. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 2008.

[23] P. A. R. Ade et al., “Planck 2013 results. XVI. Cosmological parameters.” Astron. Astrophys., vol. 571, p. A16, 2014.

[24] W. de Sitter, “On the relativity of inertia. Remarks concerning Einstein's latest hypothesis.” Proc. Roy. Neth. Acad. Arts and Sci., vol. 19, pp. 1217-1225, 1917.

[25] A. G. Riess et al., “Observational Evidence from Supernovae for an Accelerating Universe and a Cosmological Constant.” Astron. J., vol. 116, pp . 1009-1038, 1998.

[26] S. Perlmutter et al., “Measurements of Ω and Λ from 42 High-Redshift Supernovae.” Astrophys. J., vol. 517, pp. 565-586, 1999.

[27] M. Jones and R. Lambourne, An Introduction to Galaxies and Cosmology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004.

[28] C. Corda, “Interferometric detection of gravitational waves: the definitive test for General Relativity.” Int. J. Mod. Phys. D, vol. 18, pp. 2275-2282, 2009.

[29] K. Arun, K., S. B. Gudennavar and C. Sivaram, “Dark matter, dark energy, and alternate models: A review.” Adv. Space Res., vol. 60, pp. 166-186, 2017.

[30] K. Arun, S. B. Gudennavar, A. Prasad and C. Sivaram, “Alternate models to dark energy.” Adv. Space Res., vol. 61, pp. 567-570, 2018.