# Theoretical Physics

### An Extended Dynamical Equation of Motion, Phase Dependency and Inertial Backreaction

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### Author(s)

**Mario J. Pinheiro**^{*}

Department of Physics, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal**Marcus Büker**

Department of Geography, Western Illinois University, & Macomb, IL, USA 61455

### Abstract

Newton’s second law has limited scope of application when transient phenomena are present. We consider a modification of Newton’s second law in order to take into account a sudden change (surge) of angular momentum or linear momentum. We hypothesize that space itself resists such surges according to a kind of induction law (related to inertia); additionally, this backreaction apparently gives some evidence of the "fluidic" nature of space itself. This "back-reaction" is quantified by the tendency of angular momentum flux threading across a surface. This quantity is mass-dependent, and bears similarity to the quantum mechanics phase shift, present in the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects. Furthermore, this provides evidence of vacuum polarization, a phenomena which is relative to local space indicating that local geometry and topology should be taken into account in any fundamental physical theory.

### Keywords

Formalisms in classical mechanics, phases: geometric, dynamic or topological, wave generation and sources.

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