Isaac Scientific Publishing

Journal of Advances in Education Research

Students’ Approaches to Learning: Validating Study Processes Questionnaire for Use in Congolese Setting

Download PDF (399.1 KB) PP. 109 - 120 Pub. Date: May 8, 2018

DOI: 10.22606/jaer.2018.32005


  • Madeleine Kapinga-Mutatayi*
    KULeuven, Centre for Instructional Psychology and Technology, 3000, Leuven Belgium; Unikin, Faculté de Psychologie et Sciences de l’éducation
  • Pierre Mukendi
    Unikin, Faculté de Psychologie et Sciences de l’Education, Kinshasa/DRCongo
  • Jan Elen
    KULeuven, Centre for Instructional Psychology and Technology, 3000, Leuven/ Belgium


Learning outcomes are mostly determined by students’ approaches to learning (SAL). The Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) is one of the most used instruments assessing SAL. Researchers from various contexts have either validated or used the SPQ. A few studies in African contexts have investigated its psychometrics properties or used it as such. However, none of them – to the best of our knowledge –stem from a French African context. The current paper fills this gap by exploring the reliability and the validity of the R-SPQ-2F (SPQ revised version) in a Congolese setting. In line with the original findings, the main scales (Deep and Surface) were found to be acceptably reliable whereas the subscales reliability was questioned. At the dimension level, the construct validity was confirmed though items-based analysis showed disappointing results. The results also revealed a positive correlation between both main scales. Findings are discussed for further investigations.


Learning approaches, Instruments adaptation, Reliability and validity, Confirmatory factor analysis


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