联系我们
Isaac Scientific Publishing
Environmental Pollution and Protection
EPP > Volume 2, Number 3, September 2017

The Agents Orange and Purple Controversy on the Island of Guam

Download PDF  (240.6 KB)PP. 110-116,  Pub. Date:August 17, 2017
DOI:10.22606/epp.2017.23004

Author(s)
Alvin L. Young, Kristian L. Young
Affiliation(s)
A. L. Young Consulting Inc., Cheyenne, Wyoming, United States
A. L. Young Consulting Inc., Cheyenne, Wyoming, United States
Abstract
This article examines the available documentation adduced by Vietnam-era veterans and others to support the allegation that Agents Orange and Purple were shipped to and used on Andersen Air Force Base, Guam, and that veterans stationed there during the Vietnam War Era were exposed to these military tactical herbicides. The documentation was further evaluated in the context of the extensive historical records on tactical herbicides retained in the National Archives and Records Administration and other archival repositories addressing the locations where shipment, storage, use, or burial of tactical herbicides occurred. The conclusion from the submitted documentation, all identified historical records and studies by the United States Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and Environmental Protection Agency is that no plausible scenarios of exposure to Agents Orange or Purple occurred at Anderson Air Force Base, Guam.
Keywords
Agent orange, agent purple, vietnam-era veterans, tactical and commercial herbicides, island of guam, korean conflict
References
  • [1] Department of Veterans Affairs, Board of Veterans’ Appeals, Docket NO. 02-11 819, Citation No: 0527748, Decision Date: 10/13/05, Archive Date: 10/25/05, Washington DC.
  • [2] J. Mitchell, Poisons in the Pacific: Guam, Okinawa and Agent Orange. The Japan Times, 8 July 2012.
  • [3] K. P. Mora, A 68-year-old Air Force veteran said he sprayed Agent Orange on Guam in ‘60s,’70s. Published 4:31p.m. ChT Jan 5, 2017, kmora@guampdn.com
  • [4] Public Affairs, 36th Wing, Andersen Air Force Base, Guam: History of Andersen Air Force Base, 2010. The Official Web Site of Andersen Air Force Base: http://www.andersen.af.mil.
  • [5] ATSDR, Public Health Assessment, Andersen Air Force Base, Yigo, Guam. Summary and Appendix A: Evaluation of Potential IRP Sites at Andersen AFB. Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta GA, 2001.
  • [6] EPA, EPA Superfund Record of Decision: Andersen Air Force Base, US Environmental Protection Agency Report EPA/ROD/R09-2004/002, EPA ID: GU6571999519, OU 07, YIGO, GU, 1 Dec 2003.
  • [7] L. Evans, Letter from Congressman Lane Evans to Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld, 7 May 2003, RE: Requesting Review of Guam “Public Health Assessment” and details on 30 other locations alleged to be sites where tactical herbicides were used, tested, or stored
  • [8] P. W. Grone, Letter from the Principal Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Installations and Environment) to Congressman Lane Evans, 23 September 2003, RE: No records on Guam; Summary of 28 locations on the use of Vietnam-era herbicides, per request.
  • [9] Innovest Strategic Value Advisors, Dow Chemical: Risks for Investors – Uncovering Hidden Value Potential for Strategic Investors. Report prepared by Innovest Strategic Investors, New York, NY, 2004
  • [10] M. Z. Bordallo, Letter to Deputy under Secretary of Defense (I&E) Philip Grone, 5 June 2006 Requesting New Search of DoD Records on Guam and Agent Orange, 2006.
  • [11] M. V. Cagurangan, Agent Orange on Guam Confirmed; Another Case Confirms Agent Orange on Guam” dated 26 May 2009; and “Veterans: We Sprayed Agent Orange on Guam” dated 10 May 2010. Marianas Variety–Guam, Online Edition.
  • [12] Pacific Daily News, Rule Change Helps Veterans: More Diseases Included in Coverage, Guampdn.com, 16 September 2011.
  • [13] A. L. Young, The History of the US Department of Defense Programs for the Testing, Evaluation, and Storage of Tactical Herbicides. Prepared for the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (I&E), 2006 [Available from the Armed Forced Pest Management Board Literature Retrieval System (AFPMB LRS), Accession No. 182581).
  • [14] A. L. Young, K. L. Young, Investigations into Sites Where Agent Orange Exposure to Vietnam-Era Veterans Has Been Alleged. Agent Orange Investigative Report, No. 8, May 2013. Prepared for Compensation Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington DC.
  • [15] Department of Defense, Military Handbook: Design of Pest Management Facilities. Report MIL-HDBK-1028/8,31, Supersedes previous handbooks, 31 October 1984. (AFPMB LRS, Accession No. 123220).
  • [16] Department of Defense, Plan for Certification of Pesticide Applicators. Armed Forces Pest Control Board, Forest Glen Section, WRAMC, Washington DC, 1977 (AFPMB LRS, Accession No. 96815).
  • [17] K. G. Wickham, Herbicides, Pest Control Agents, and Disinfectants. Department of the Army Supply Bulletin,SB 3-40, Department of the Army, Washington DC, 1968. (AFPMB LRS, Accession No. 50641).
  • [18] A. L. Young, Ecological Studies on a Herbicide-Equipment Test Area (TA C-52A), Eglin AFB Reservation, Florida. Final Report: Jan 1967 to Nov 1973. Technical Report, AFATL-TR-74-12, Air Force Armament Laboratory, 1974. [Available from Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC), Accession No. AD-780-517].
  • [19] A. L. Young, The History of the US Department of Defense Programs for the Testing, Evaluation, and Storage of Tactical Herbicides. Report prepared for the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense, Washington, DC, Dec 2006. (AFPMB LRS, Accession No. 182581).
  • [20] R. M. Acker, R. W. Hartmeyer, J. E. Heatherly, and W. E. Bullard, Anticrop Aerial Spray Trials, Phase III. Special Report No. 184, US Army Chemical Corps’ Biological Laboratories, Camp Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, 15 Feb 1953 (DTIC, Accession No. AD 49572).
  • [21] J. F. Ward, Evaluation of Production Model of Large Capacity Spray System for B-29 and C-119 Aircraft. Technical Report No. 53-33, Air Force Armament Center, Eglin AFB, Florida, 4 Nov 1954. (DTIC, Accession No. AD1763).
  • [22] D. L. Miller, Historian, History of Air Force Participation in the Biological Warfare Program, 1951-1954, Monograph prepare by Historical Division, Office of Information Services, Air Materiel Command, WrightPatterson AFB, Jan 1957. (This document declassified 28 Jun 78, but subject to export control. Available from the DTIC).
  • [23] W. A. Buckingham, Jr. “OPERATION RANCH HAND: The Air Force and Herbicides in Southeast Asia, 1961-1971”, Office of Air Force History, Washington, DC, 1982 (see page 6).
  • [24] A. L. Young, “The History, Use, Deposition, and Environmental Fate of Agent Orange”, Springer 2009.
  • [25] M. Fingerhut, L. M. Blade, D. A. Marlow, NIOSH Dioxin Registry Site Visit Report of Rhone-Poulenc,Incorporated, Portland, Oregon, Report No. IWS-117-14, 31 Jan 1984. Prepared by the Industrywide Studies Branch, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Center (NIOSH), Cincinnati, OH. (Available from the National Technical Information Service, US Depart of Commerce, Accession No. PB84-240035).
Copyright © 2020 Isaac Scientific Publishing Co. All rights reserved.